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一、阅读理解（共 4 道试题，共 40 分。）V 1. Brazil has become one of the developing world’s greatest successes at reducing population growth-but more by accident than design. While countries such as India have made joint efforts to reduce birth rates, Brazil has had better result without really trying, says George Martine at Harvard.
Brazil’s population growth rate has dropped from 2.99% a year between 1951 and 1960 to 1.93% a year between 1981 and 1990, and Brazilian women now have only 2.7 children on average. Martine says this figure may have fallen still further since 1990, an achievement that makes it the envy of many other Third World countries.
Martine puts it down to, among other things, soap operas（通俗电视连续剧）and installment（分期付款）plans introduced in the 1970s. Both played an important, although indirect, role in lowering the birth rate. Brazil is one of the world’s biggest producers of soap operas. Globo, Brazil’s most popular television network, shows three hours of soaps six nights a week, while three others show at least one hour a night. Most soaps are based on wealthy characters living the high life in big cities.
“Although they have never really tried to work in a message towards the problems of reproduction, they describe middle and upper class values-not many children, different attitudes towards sex, women working,” says Martine. “They sent this image to all parts of Brazil and made people conscious of other patterns of behavior and other values, which were put into a very attractive package.”
Meanwhile, the installment plans tried to encourage the poor to become consumers. “This led to an enormous change in consumption patterns and consumption was incompatible（不相容的）with unlimited reproduction,” says Martine.1). According to the passage, Brazil has cut back its population growth _________.
A. by educating its citizens
B. by careful family planning
C. by developing TV programmers
D. by chance
2). According to the passage, many Third World countries _________.
haven’t attached much importance to birth control
B. would soon join Brazil in controlling their birth rate
C. haven’t yet found an effective measure to control their population
D. neglected the role of TV plays in family planning
3). The phrase “puts it down to” (Line 1, Pars.3) is closest in meaning to “_________”.
A. attributes it to
B. finds it a reason for
C. sums it up as
D. compares it to
4). Soap operas have helped in lowering Brazil’s birth rate because _________.
A. they keep people sitting long hours watching TV
B. they have gradually changed people’s way of life
C. people are drawn to their attractive package
D. they popularize birth control measures
5). What is Martine’s conclusion about Brazil’s population growth?
A. The increase in birth rate will promote consumption.
B. The desire for consumption helps to reduce birth rate.
C. Consumption patterns and reproduction patterns are contradictory
D. A country’s production is limited by its population growth.
Geniuses look at problems in many different ways. Genius often comes from finding a new perspective that no one else has taken. Leonardo da Vinci believed that, to gain knowledge about the form of a problem, you begin by learning how to restructure it in many different ways. He felt that the first way he looked at a problem was too biased toward his usual way of seeing things. He would restructure his problem by looking at it from one perspective and move to another perspective and still another. With each move, his understanding would deepen and he would begin to understand the essence of the problem.
Geniuses make their thought visible. The explosion of creativity in the Renaissance was closely tied to the recording and conveying of vast knowledge in drawings, graphs, and diagrams, as in the famous diagrams of da Vinci and Galileo. Galileo revolutionized science by making his thought graphically visible while his contemporaries used only conventional mathematical and verbal approaches.
Geniuses produce. A distinguishing characteristic of geniuses is great productivity. Thomas Edison held 1,093 patents (专利), still the record. He guaranteed productivity by giving himself and his assistants idea quotas (定量). His personal quota was one minor invention every 10 days and a major invention every six months. Bach wrote a cantata (清唱剧) every week, even when he was sick or exhausted. Mozart produced more than 600 pieces of music. Einstein is best known for his paper on relativity, but he published 248 other papers. T.S. Eliot’s numerous drafts of The Waste Land constitute a jumble (混乱一团) of good and bad passages that eventually was turned into a masterpiece.
Geniuses make novel combinations. Like the highly playful child with a bucket of building blocks, a genius is constantly combining and recombining ideas, images, and thoughts into different combinations in their conscious and subconscious minds. Consider Einstein’s equation, E=mc2. Einstein did not invent the concepts of energy, mass, or speed of light. Rather, by combining these concepts in a novel way, he was able to look at the same world as everyone else and see something different.
1). In order to understand a problem thoroughly, da Vinci _______.
A. referred to numerous books
B. compared it with many other problems
C. made use of drawings and graphs
D. approached it from different angles
2). During the Renaissance, graphs and diagrams _______.
A. were often used to aid scientific researches
B. served as sources of fresh ideas for some scientists
C. could provide scientists with an immense quantity of knowledge
D. were necessary for the expression of creative ideas
3). What is the main idea of the third paragraph?
A. Geniuses make creations or discoveries in large quantities.
B. Geniuses can score many achievements without much effort.
C. Geniuses inevitably experience failures before making a success.
D. Geniuses may just produce something common and ordinary.
4). In the last paragraph, the author mentions the playful child in order to show _______.
A. that geniuses are fond of playing games, too
B. that geniuses are as creative as most children with a set of interesting toys
C. how geniuses turn ideas into reality in different ways
D. why making different combinations can work wonders
5). According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?
A. Einstein invented the concept of speed of light.
B. The Waste Land is a great work of literature.
C. Edison made one major invention every 10 days.
D. Mozart composed something every day when he was sick.
3. For any Englishman, there can never be any discussion as to who is the world’s greatest dramatist (剧作家). Only one name can possibly suggest itself to him: that of William Shakespeare. Every Englishman has some knowledge, however slight, of the work of our greatest writer. All of us use words, phrases and quotations from Shakespeare’s writings that have become part of the common property of the English-speaking people. Most of the time we are probably unaware of the source of the words we used, rather like the old lady who was taken to see a performance of Hamlet and complained that it was full of well-known proverbs and quotations.
Shakespeare, more perhaps than any other writer, makes full use of the great resources of the English language. Most of us use about five thousand words in our normal use of English; Shakespeare in his works used about twenty-five thousand.
There is probably no better way for a foreigner to appreciate the richness and variety of the English language than by studying the various ways in which Shakespeare used it. Such a study is well worth the effort (it is not, of course, recommended to beginners) even though some aspects of English usage, and the meaning of many words, have changed since Shakespeare’s day.
1). English people _______.
A. have never discussed who is the world’s greatest dramatist
B. never discuss any issue concerning the world’s greatest dramatist
C. are sure who is the world’s greatest dramatist
D. do not care who is the world’s greatest poet and dramatist
2). Every Englishman knows _______.
A. more or less about Shakespeare
B. Shakespeare, but only slightly
C. all Shakespeare’s writings
D. only the name of the greatest English writer
3). Which of the following is true?
A. We use all the words, phrases and quotations from Shakespeare’s writings.
B. Shakespeare’s writings have become the property of those who are learning to speak English.
C. It is likely to be true that people often do not know the origins of the words they use
D. All the words people use are taken from the writings of Shakespeare.
4). What does the word “proverb” mean?
A. Familiar sayings.
B. Shakespeare’s plays.
D. Actors and actresses.
5). Why is it worthwhile to study the various ways in which Shakespeare used English?
A. English words have changed a lot since Shakespeare’s time.
B. By doing so one can be fully aware of the richness of the English language.
C. English words are now being used in the same way as in Shakespeare’s time.
D. Beginners may have difficulty learning some aspects of English usage.
4. We can see how the product life cycle works by looking at the introduction of instant coffee. When it was introduced, most people did not like it as well as “regular” coffee, and it took several years to gain general acceptance (introduction stage). At one point, though, instant coffee grew rapidly in popularity, and many brands were introduced (stage of rapid growth). After a while, people became attached to one brand and sales leveled off (stage of maturity). Sales went into a slight decline（衰退）when freeze-dried coffees were introduced (stage of decline).
The importance of the product life cycle to marketers is this: Different stages in the product life cycle call for different strategies. The goal is to extend product life so that sales and profits do not decline. One strategy is called market modification. It means that marketing managers look for new users and market sections. Did you know, for example, that the backpacks that so many students carry today were originally designed for the military?
Market modification also means searching for increased usage among present customers or going for a different market, such as senior citizens. A marketer may re-position the product to appeal to new market sections.
Another product extension strategy is called product modification. It involves changing product quality, features, or style to attract new users or more usage from present users. American auto manufacturers are using quality improvement as one way to recapture world markets. Note, also, how auto manufacturers once changed styles dramatically from year to year to keep demand from falling.
1). According to the passage, when people grow fond of one particular brand of a product, its sales will __________.
A. decrease gradually
B. become unstable
C. improve enormously
D. remain at the same level
2). The first paragraph tells us that a new product is ___________.
A. usually introduced to satisfy different tastes
B. often more expensive than old ones
C. often inferior to old ones at first
D. not easily accepted by the public
3). Marketers need to know which of the four stages a product is in so as to __________.
A. work out marketing policies
B. increase its popularity
C. promote its production
D. speed up its life cycle
4). The author mentions the example of “backpacks” (Line 4, Para.2) to show the importance of ___________.
A. increasing usage among students
B. exploring new market sections
C. pleasing the young as well as the old
D. serving both military and civil needs
5). In order to recover their share of the world market, U.S. auto makers are ___________.
A. improving product quality
B. modernizing product style
C. re-positioning their product in the market
D. increasing product features
二、单选题（共 15 道试题，共 45 分。）V 1. 18. I was halfway back to the cottage where my mother lived _______ Susan caught up with me.
2. 7 Many a delegate was in favor of his proposal that a special committee ________ to investigate the incident.
A. were set up
B. was set up
C. be set up
D. set up
3. 4. The hours _______ the children spend in their one-way relationship with television people undoubtedly affect their relationships with real-life people.
A. in which
B. on which
4. Mr. Johnson keeps fit by eating less fat and sugar and ______ more exercise.A. takes
C. to take
5. — Excuse me, is this the right direction for the school?
— __________________ .A. Well, no, you're going in the wrong direction
B. No, don't ask me
C. No, I don't know
D. Don't go this way
6. It is generally considered unwise to give a child ______ he or she wants.
7. 8. We left the meeting, there obviously ______ no point in staying.
C. to be
8. The meaning of time ______ from country to country.A. differ
9. 20. The bed has been _______ in the family. It was my great grandmother's originally.
A. handed out
B. handed over
C. handed down
D. handed round
10. —It’s very thoughtful of you to give me a ride.
—_____________A. It’s my pleasure.
B. Take it easy.
D. Never mind.
11. Do you want to try on these shoes to see _______ they’ re the right size?A. as
12. They are planning to have the machine ______.A. being repaired
D. to be repaired
13. 14. Cancellation of the flight _______ many passengers to spend the night at the airport.
14. 5 He ________ to his customers and halved the price.
15. The manager needs an assistant that he can ________ to take care of problems in his absence.A. depend on
B. depend in
C. depend up
D. depend out
三、完型填空（共 1 道试题，共 15 分。）V 1. Just as the 1960s ended, a new protest (抗议) movement was beginning. Some women __1__ out that they were being treated unfairly. They were being paid less money __2__ the same jobs as men. Few women __3__ promoted （提升）to important jobs. Women’s groups like the National Organization for Women were formed to work for __4__ treatment for women. Between 1970 and 1976 they were __5__ in forcing banks, insurance companies, and credit companies to stop unfair discrimination (歧视) against women.
A. equal B.C. D. E.
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