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一、阅读理解（共 4 道试题，共 40 分。）V 1. Brazil has become one of the developing world’s greatest successes at reducing population growth-but more by accident than design. While countries such as India have made joint efforts to reduce birth rates, Brazil has had better result without really trying, says George Martine at Harvard.
Brazil’s population growth rate has dropped from 2.99% a year between 1951 and 1960 to 1.93% a year between 1981 and 1990, and Brazilian women now have only 2.7 children on average. Martine says this figure may have fallen still further since 1990, an achievement that makes it the envy of many other Third World countries.
Martine puts it down to, among other things, soap operas（通俗电视连续剧）and installment（分期付款）plans introduced in the 1970s. Both played an important, although indirect, role in lowering the birth rate. Brazil is one of the world’s biggest producers of soap operas. Globo, Brazil’s most popular television network, shows three hours of soaps six nights a week, while three others show at least one hour a night. Most soaps are based on wealthy characters living the high life in big cities.
“Although they have never really tried to work in a message towards the problems of reproduction, they describe middle and upper class values-not many children, different attitudes towards sex, women working,” says Martine. “They sent this image to all parts of Brazil and made people conscious of other patterns of behavior and other values, which were put into a very attractive package.”
Meanwhile, the installment plans tried to encourage the poor to become consumers. “This led to an enormous change in consumption patterns and consumption was incompatible（不相容的）with unlimited reproduction,” says Martine.1). According to the passage, Brazil has cut back its population growth _________.
A. by educating its citizens
B. by careful family planning
C. by developing TV programmers
D. by chance
2). According to the passage, many Third World countries _________.
haven’t attached much importance to birth control
B. would soon join Brazil in controlling their birth rate
C. haven’t yet found an effective measure to control their population
D. neglected the role of TV plays in family planning
3). The phrase “puts it down to” (Line 1, Pars.3) is closest in meaning to “_________”.
A. attributes it to
B. finds it a reason for
C. sums it up as
D. compares it to
4). Soap operas have helped in lowering Brazil’s birth rate because _________.
A. they keep people sitting long hours watching TV
B. they have gradually changed people’s way of life
C. people are drawn to their attractive package
D. they popularize birth control measures
5). What is Martine’s conclusion about Brazil’s population growth?
A. The increase in birth rate will promote consumption.
B. The desire for consumption helps to reduce birth rate.
C. Consumption patterns and reproduction patterns are contradictory
D. A country’s production is limited by its population growth.
2. If we were asked exactly what we were doing a year ago, we should probably have to say that we could not remember. But if we had kept a book and had written in it and account of what we did each day, we should be able to give an answer to the question.
It is the same in history. Many things have been forgotten because we do not have any written account of them. Sometimes men did keep a record of the most important happenings in their country, but often it was destroyed by fire or in a war. Sometimes there was never any written record at all because the people of that time and place did not know how to write. For example, we know a good deal about the people who lived in China 4,000 years ago, because they could write and leave written records for those who lived after them. But we know almost nothing about the people who lived even 200 years ago in central Africa, because they had not learned to write.
Sometimes, of course, even if the people cannot write, they may know something of the past. They have heard about it from older people, and often songs and dances and stories have been made about the most important happenings, and these have been sung and acted and told for many generations. For most people are proud to tell what their fathers did in the past. This we may call “remembered history”. Some of it has now been written down. It is not so exact or so valuable to us as written history is, because words are much more easily changed when used again and again in speech than when copied in writing. But where there are no written records, such spoken stories are often very helpful.
1). Which of the following ideas is not suggested in the passage?
A. “Remembered history”, compared with written history, is less reliable.
B. Written records of the past play the most important role in our learning of the human history.
C. A written account of our daily activities helps us to be able to answer many questions.
D. Where there are no written records, there is no history.
2). We know very little about the central Africa 200 years ago because _______.
A. there was nothing worth being written down at that time
B. the people there ignored the importance of keeping a record
C. the written records were perhaps destroyed by a fire
D. the people there did not know how to write
3). “Remembered history” refers to _______.
A. history based on a person’s imagination
B. stories of important happenings passed down from mouth to mouth
C. songs and dances about the most important events
D. both B and C
4). “Remembered history” is regarded as valuable only when _______.
A. it is written down
B. no written account is available
C. it proves to be true
D. people are interested in it
5). The passage suggests that we could have learned much more about our past than we do now if the ancient people had _______.
A. kept a written record of every past event
B. not burnt their written records in wars
C. told exact stories of the most important happenings
D. made more songs and dances
3. The appeal of advertising to buying motives can have both negative and positive effects. Consumers may be convinced to buy a product of poor quality or high price because of an advertisement. For example, some advertisers have appealed to people’s desire for better fuel economy for their cars by advertising automotive products that improve gasoline mileage. Some of the products work. Others are worthless and a waste of consumers’ money.
Sometimes advertising is intentionally misleading. A few years ago a brand of bread was offered to dieters（节食者）with the message that there were fewer calories（热量单位，大卡）in every slice. It turned out that the bread was not dietetic（适合于节食的）, but just regular bread. There were fewer calories because it was sliced very thin, but there were the same number of calories in every loaf.
On the positive side, emotional appeals may respond to a consumer’s real concerns. Consider fire insurance. Fire security of knowing that property is protected by insurance makes the purchase of fire insurance a worthwhile investment for most people. If consumers consider the quality of the insurance plans as well as the message in the ads, they will benefit from the advertising.
Each consumer must evaluate her or his own situation. Are the benefits of the product important enough to justify buying it? Advertising is intended to appeal to consumers, but it does not force them to buy the product. Consumers still control the final buying decision.1). Advertising can persuade the consumer to buy worthless products by _________.
A. keeping a balance between quality and price
B. convincing him of their low price
C. appealing to his buying motives
D. stressing their high quality
2). The reason why the bread advertisement is misleading is that ________.
A. the total number of calories in the loaf remained the same
B. thin slices of bread could contain more calories
C. the loaf was cut into regular slices
D. the bread was not real bread
3). The passage tells us that _______.
A. advertisements occasionally force consumers into buying things they don’t need
B. the buying motives of consumers are controlled by advertisements
C. sometimes advertisements really sell what the consumer needs
D. fire insurance is seldom a worthwhile investment
4). It can be inferred from the passage that a smart consumer should _________.
A. be familiar with various advertising strategies
B. think carefully about the benefits described in the advertisements
C. guard against the deceiving nature of advertisements
D. avoid buying products that have strong emotional appeal
5). The passage is mainly about ________.
A. ways to protect the interests of the consumer
B. how to make a wise buying decision
C. the function of advertisements in promoting sales
D. the positive and negative aspects of advertising
4. In the last 500 years, nothing about people—not their clothes, ideas, or languages—has changed as much as what they eat. The original chocolate drink was made from the seeds of the cocoa tree by South American Indians. The Spanish introduced it to the rest of the world during the 1500’s. And although it was very expensive, it quickly became fashionable. In London, shops where chocolate drinks were served became important meeting places. Some still exist today.
The potato is also from the new world. Around 1600, the Spanish brought it from Peru to Europe, where it soon was widely grown. Ireland became so dependent on it that thousands of Irish people starved when the crop failed during the “potato famine” of 1845-1846, and thousands more were forced to leave their motherland and move to America.
There are many other foods that have traveled from South American to the Old World. But some others went in the opposite direction. Brazil is now the world’s largest grower of coffee, and coffee is an important crop in Colombia and other South American countries. But it is native to Ethiopia, a country in Africa. It was first made into a drink by Arabs during the 1400’s.
According to an Arabic legend, coffee was discovered when a person named Kaldi noticed that his goats were attracted to the red berried on a coffee bush. He tried one and experienced the wide-awake feeling that one–third of the world’s population now starts the day with.1). According to the passage, which of the following has changed the most in the last 500 years?
2). In the last sentence of the first paragraph “some” refers to ______.
A. some cocoa trees
B. some chocolate drinks
C. some shops
D. some South American Indians
3). Thousands of Irish people starved during the “potato famine” because _______.
A. they were so dependent on potatoes that they refused to eat anything else
B. they were forced to leave their motherland and move to America
C. the weather conditions in Ireland were not suitable for growing potatoes
D. the potato harvest was bad
4). Which country is the largest coffee producer?
5). Which of the following statements is NOT true, according to the passage?
A. One–third of the world’s population drinks coffee.
B. Coffee is native to Colombia.
C. Coffee can keep one awake.
D. Coffee drinks were first made by Arabs.
二、单选题（共 15 道试题，共 45 分。）V 1. ---- What can I do for you, madam?
---- ____________________.A. I want a kilo of apples
B. You can go your own way
D. Excuse me. I’m busy
2. It is thought to be a wise way to have some money ________ for old age.A. put aside
B. given in
C. taken off
D. set out
17. Fifty years ago, wealthy people liked hunting wild animals for fun _______ sightseeing.
rather than to go
B. more than going
other than going
D. than to go
—I’d like to place an order please.A. Can I help you?
B. I can help you.
C. What are you doing?
D. Why are you doing?
5. 5. Who would you rather ______ with you, George or me?
B. to go
C. have gone
6. 8. _______in the office had a mistake, and the firm regretted causing the customer inconvenience.A.
7. He wasn’t in the first place, but he wasn’t in the last, ________.A. too
8. — Hello, I'd like to speak to Mark, please.
— ___________________ .A. Yes, I'm Mark
B. This is Mark speaking
C. It's me here
D. It's me here
9. 16 Mobile telecommunications ________ is expected to double in Shanghai this year as a result of a contract signed between the two companies.
10. 14. The children are ________ in a great deal of outdoor activities.A.
11. 18. I was halfway back to the cottage where my mother lived _______ Susan caught up with me.
12. Many factories ______ during the economic recession.A. closed down
B. put down
C. went down
D. knocked down
13. 20. During the process, great care has to be taken to protect the ______ silk from damage.
14. I am looking forward _______ you soon.A. to hear from
B. hear from
C. to hearing from
D. heard from
15. 2. He didn’t have time to read the report word for word: he just ______ it.
三、完型填空（共 1 道试题，共 15 分。）V 1. When people from two cultures meet, they often borrow objects and __1__ from one another. Sometimes, this __2__ changes in both cultures. China and Europe have been __2__ with each other for more than 2000 years. Europe borrowed much more from China than China __3__ from Europe. From the Chinese, the Europeans obtained silk, tea, paper, printing and new __4__ such as oranges. Before the Europeans __5__ China, they did not have or use such things.
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