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[北京语言大学]19秋《阅读(IV)》作业4(100分)

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发表于 2019-10-24 02:47:52 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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【奥鹏】[北京语言大学]19秋《阅读(IV)》作业4
试卷总分:100    得分:100
第1题,California-born and Stanford-educated, John Steinbeck gained prominence during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a novelist who combined themes of social protest with a benign view of human nature and a biological interpretation of human experience, a combination that gained him wide popularity and provided the basis for a career not only in fiction but also in journalism, the theater, and films.
John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr., was born in 1902, in the Salinas Valley, whose scenery, agricultural workers, and ne'er-do-well paisanos appear frequently in his fiction. His father was treasurer of Monterey County, and his mother was a former schoolteacher. Their library introduced him early to such standard authors as Milton, Dostoevsky, Flaubert, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy. He was a contributor to the school newspaper, a varsity athlete, and president of his graduating class in high school, and he attended Stanford University sporadically between 1920 and 1925, majoring in English, but never finished the degree. He worked on ranches and on a road gang before trying futilely to establish himself as a writer during a brief stay in New York City in 1926, and he worked in a California fish hatchery and camped in the Sierras before publishing his first novel, Cup of Gold, in 1929. In those years he read D. H. Lawrence, Willa Cather, Sherwood Anderson, and particularly the novelists James Branch Cabelland, Hemingway with enthusiasm, but his perennial interests were the classics of Continental literature and the ancient historians.
In 1930 he married and moved to Pacific Grove, California, where his father provided a house and small allowance to support him. Two unsuccessful novels treating the enchantment of the American Dream and the cost of pursuing it (The Pastures of Heaven, 1932, and To a God Unknown, 1933) preceded his first successes, Tortilla Flat in 1935 and In Dubious Battle in 1936. The first was an episodic, warmly humorous treatment of a band of paisanos (a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Caucasian strands). Their picturesque and shiftless ways, naive affection for their church, mystical appreciation of nature, and loyalty to their band are given the air of legend and likened to the tales of King Arthur's Round Table. The second deals with a strike among fruit pickers, its defeat by the landowners with their vigilantes, and the efforts of communist organizers first to organize the strike and then to exploit the workers.
Question:"Paisanos" means ________.
A、rich people
B、poor people
C、peasants
D、laborers
正确答案:


第2题,California-born and Stanford-educated, John Steinbeck gained prominence during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a novelist who combined themes of social protest with a benign view of human nature and a biological interpretation of human experience, a combination that gained him wide popularity and provided the basis for a career not only in fiction but also in journalism, the theater, and films.
John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr., was born in 1902, in the Salinas Valley, whose scenery, agricultural workers, and ne'er-do-well paisanos appear frequently in his fiction. His father was treasurer of Monterey County, and his mother was a former schoolteacher. Their library introduced him early to such standard authors as Milton, Dostoevsky, Flaubert, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy. He was a contributor to the school newspaper, a varsity athlete, and president of his graduating class in high school, and he attended Stanford University sporadically between 1920 and 1925, majoring in English, but never finished the degree. He worked on ranches and on a road gang before trying futilely to establish himself as a writer during a brief stay in New York City in 1926, and he worked in a California fish hatchery and camped in the Sierras before publishing his first novel, Cup of Gold, in 1929. In those years he read D. H. Lawrence, Willa Cather, Sherwood Anderson, and particularly the novelists James Branch Cabelland, Hemingway with enthusiasm, but his perennial interests were the classics of Continental literature and the ancient historians.
In 1930 he married and moved to Pacific Grove, California, where his father provided a house and small allowance to support him. Two unsuccessful novels treating the enchantment of the American Dream and the cost of pursuing it (The Pastures of Heaven, 1932, and To a God Unknown, 1933) preceded his first successes, Tortilla Flat in 1935 and In Dubious Battle in 1936. The first was an episodic, warmly humorous treatment of a band of paisanos (a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Caucasian strands). Their picturesque and shiftless ways, naive affection for their church, mystical appreciation of nature, and loyalty to their band are given the air of legend and likened to the tales of King Arthur's Round Table. The second deals with a strike among fruit pickers, its defeat by the landowners with their vigilantes, and the efforts of communist organizers first to organize the strike and then to exploit the workers.
Question:As a student at school, Steinbeck was all the following except ________.
A、a school newspaper reporter
B、an athlete
C、president of the school
D、an English major
正确答案:


第3题,You ____ me because I didn't say anything like that.
A、must misunderstand
B、may misunderstand
C、must have misunderstood
D、could have misunderstood
正确答案:


第4题,The story was said to have been based on the information from a reliable ____.
A、source
B、foundation
C、origin
D、basis
正确答案:


第5题,Had he worked harder, he ____the exams.
A、must have got through
B、could get through
C、would get through
D、would have got through
正确答案:


第6题,Young people should have the right to control and direct their own learning, that is, to decide what they want to learn, and when, where, how, how much, how fast, and with what help they want to learn it. To be still more specific, I want them to have the right to decide if, when, how much, and by whom they want to be taught and the right to decide whether they want to learn in a school and if so which one and for how much of the time.
No human right, except the right to life itself, is more fundamental than this. A person's freedom of learning is part of his freedom of thought, even more basic than his freedom of speech. If we take from someone his right to decide what he will be curious about, we destroy his freedom of thought. We say, in effect, you must think not about what interests and concerns you, but about what interests and concerns us.
This right of each of us to control our own learning is now in danger. When we put into our laws the highly authoritarian notion that someone should and could decide what all young people were to learn and beyond that, could do whatever might seem necessary (which now includes dosing them with drugs) to compel them to learn it, we took a long step down a very steep and dangerous path. The requirement that a child go to school, for about six hours a day, 180 days a year, for about ten years, whether or not he learns anything there, whether or not he already knows it or could learn it faster or better somewhere else, is such a gross violation of civil liberties that few adults would stand for it. But the child who resists is treated as a criminal. With this requirement we created an industry, an army of people whose whole work was to tell young people what they had to learn and to try to make them learn it. Some of these people, wanting to exercise even more power over others, or to be even more "helpful," are now beginning to say, "If compulsory education is good for children, why wouldn't it be good for everyone? If it is a good thing, how can there be too much of it?"
They are beginning to talk, as one man did on a nationwide TV show, about "womb-to-tomb" schooling. If hours of homework every night are good for the young, why wouldn't they be good for us all—they would keep us away from the TV set and other frivolous pursuits. Some group of experts, somewhere, would be glad to decide what we all ought to know and then very so often check up on us to make sure we knew it—with, of course, appropriate penalties if we did not.
Question:The phrase "womb-to-tomb" schooling probably means that _______.
A、learning is from young to old
B、learning is disastrous
C、learning is unnecessary
D、learning is not always helpful
正确答案:


第7题,California-born and Stanford-educated, John Steinbeck gained prominence during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a novelist who combined themes of social protest with a benign view of human nature and a biological interpretation of human experience, a combination that gained him wide popularity and provided the basis for a career not only in fiction but also in journalism, the theater, and films.
John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr., was born in 1902, in the Salinas Valley, whose scenery, agricultural workers, and ne'er-do-well paisanos appear frequently in his fiction. His father was treasurer of Monterey County, and his mother was a former schoolteacher. Their library introduced him early to such standard authors as Milton, Dostoevsky, Flaubert, George Eliot, and Thomas Hardy. He was a contributor to the school newspaper, a varsity athlete, and president of his graduating class in high school, and he attended Stanford University sporadically between 1920 and 1925, majoring in English, but never finished the degree. He worked on ranches and on a road gang before trying futilely to establish himself as a writer during a brief stay in New York City in 1926, and he worked in a California fish hatchery and camped in the Sierras before publishing his first novel, Cup of Gold, in 1929. In those years he read D. H. Lawrence, Willa Cather, Sherwood Anderson, and particularly the novelists James Branch Cabelland, Hemingway with enthusiasm, but his perennial interests were the classics of Continental literature and the ancient historians.
In 1930 he married and moved to Pacific Grove, California, where his father provided a house and small allowance to support him. Two unsuccessful novels treating the enchantment of the American Dream and the cost of pursuing it (The Pastures of Heaven, 1932, and To a God Unknown, 1933) preceded his first successes, Tortilla Flat in 1935 and In Dubious Battle in 1936. The first was an episodic, warmly humorous treatment of a band of paisanos (a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Caucasian strands). Their picturesque and shiftless ways, naive affection for their church, mystical appreciation of nature, and loyalty to their band are given the air of legend and likened to the tales of King Arthur's Round Table. The second deals with a strike among fruit pickers, its defeat by the landowners with their vigilantes, and the efforts of communist organizers first to organize the strike and then to exploit the workers.
Question:In Dubious Battle gives a description of ________.
A、a group of paisanos loyal to their band
B、King Arthur's Round Table
C、the defeat of a strike by the landowners
D、soldiers fighting for freedom
正确答案:


第8题,Let's address the question of whether speed reading is even a desirable goal. I am an avid fiction reader. Consciously or unconsciously, readers of fiction appreciate the beauty in good writing. Occasionally I will read a passage or sentence over to be impressed by the opening sentences of Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, The Dark, and Herman.
If I was a determined speed reader, I would never have the time to appreciate these beautiful passages. And I'd never have the time to savor the development of a character like Rhett Butler, the Great Gatsby or Captain Ahab. Good writers must be read carefully and thoughtfully to be fully appreciated.
To carry the question of the need for rapid reading a bit further, let's consider the technical or educational material most of us must read for our jobs. If you work in a technical field—and most business and professional people do—you'd better read slowly and carefully. Almost all businesses today are subject to federal regulations to some degree. If you must read the Federal Register, the Code of Federal Regulations, the OSHA Handbook or other technical materials related directly to your job, I'd urge you to take your time. A misreading could be costly or damaging to your firm. On the other hand, newspapers, news magazines and other publications should be read with some degree of speed. Here's where a general knowledge of speed reading techniques might be useful. Especially since that is the most common type of reading we do.
Anyone can improve their reading efficiently. To do so, you must learn some basic techniques and then consciously apply them. Perhaps an expensive course would help you, but an inexpensive paperback and concentrated practice might provide as much long-term benefit. In any case, you lose nothing by trying the self-help approach.
Question:One type of printed material the author thinks can be read quickly is ________.
A、a business letter
B、a dictionary
C、a news magazine
D、a poem
正确答案:


第9题,From the moment that an animal is born it has to make decisions. It has to decide which of the things around it are for eating, and which are to be avoided; when to attack and when to run away. The animal is, in effect, playing a complicated and potentially very dangerous game with its environment, discomfort or destruction.
This is a difficult and unpleasant business and few animals would survive if they had to start from the beginning and learn about the world wholly by trial and error, for there are too many possible decisions which would prove fatal. So we find, in practice, that the game is always arranged in favor of the young animal in one way or another. Either the animal is protected during the early stages of its learning about the world around it, or the knowledge of which way to respond is built into its nervous system from the start.
The fact that animals behave sensibly can be attributed partly to what we might call genetic learning, to distinguish it from individual learning that an animal does in the cause of its own life time. Genetic learning is learning by a species as a whole, and it is achieved by selection of those members of each generation that happen to behave in the right way. However, genetic learning depends upon a prediction that the future will more or less exactly resemble the past. The more variable individual experience is likely to be, the less efficient is genetic learning as a means of getting over the problems of the survival game. It is not surprising to find that very few species indeed depend wholly upon genetic learning. In the great majority of animals, behavior is a compound of individual experience and genetic learning to behave in particular ways.
Question:Most animals survive because they can make right decisions by ________.
A、a series of trials and errors
B、knowledge obtained in their life time
C、the nervous system
D、genetic learning and individual experience
正确答案:


第10题,I wish I ____ to study English years ago.
A、had started
B、started
C、could stard
D、would start
正确答案:


第11题,The old people often raise ____ for the sake of companionship.
A、pets
B、pipes
C、pills
D、pies
正确答案:


第12题,Also serving to produce a distinctive usage was the practice of distinguishing a son from a father by the use of Junior. This typically American practice began in the middle of the eighteenth century when most gentlemen had some knowledge of Latin and were familiar with the use of the term Junior, translated often into English as "the younger," as applied to such Latin worthies as Cato and Pliny. The practice was so well established by 1776 that three signers of the Declaration added the Jr. Agai. British custom has been different; the second of a pair of great statesmen is known as William Pitt, the younger.
Still another important movement beginning around 1750 was the rise of the name Charles. Earlier, Charles is hardly found at all in New England, and is rare in the other colonies. After that its growth was not only steady but even spectacular. By 1850 it had become one of the commonest names, and it has remained close to the top since that time. Its curious nickname, Chuck, is typically American.
Almost at an equal pace with the rise of Charles, the use of Biblical names, even in New England, began to fall off. Ebenezer, and even Samuel and Benjamin, came to have about them an old-fashioned aura.
The facts are clear enough; the causes remain obscure. Immigration probably had little to do with such changes. English influence, at the ideal level, may have helped the growth of Charles. During these same decades the name was increasing in popularity there, where Sir Charles Grandison was a much read novel and Bonie Prince Charlie had given the name a renewed vogue among those who still held sentimentally to the Stuarts. But most of the other new developments seem to be wholly native and even to run counter to British practice.
Question:The final paragraph mainly discusses ________.
A、how novels helped the popularity of certain names
B、new developments in naming habits of Americans
C、immigration and naming habits of Americans
D、Charles, the most popular name in America
正确答案:


第13题,He used to get up late, ____?
A、did not he
B、did he
C、didn't he
D、use he
正确答案:


第14题,In order to buy her house she had to obtain a ____ from the bank.
A、finance
B、capital
C、loan
D、debt
正确答案:


第15题,I hope there is  ____ for the doctor in your car.
A、seat
B、room
C、place
D、corner
正确答案:


第16题,Americans are pound of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general. Why are uniforms so popular in the United States?Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian(百姓的)clothes. People have become conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. the television repairman who wears uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity(身份)than to step out of uniform?Uniforms also have many practical benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are tax-deductible(可减税的). They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes.Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without change, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act similarly, on the job at least.Uniforms also give rise to some practical problems. Though they are long-lasting, often their initial expense is greater than the cost of civilian clothes. Some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes.
Question:The chief function of a uniform is to ____.
A、provide practical benefits to the wearer
B、make the wearer catch the pubic eye
C、inspire the wearer’s confidence in himself
D、provide the wearer with a professional identity
正确答案:


第17题,We substitute fish ____ meat several times a week.
A、for
B、with
C、to
D、and
正确答案:


第18题,Since you won't take advice, there is no ____ in asking for it.
A、place
B、point
C、reason
D、way
正确答案:


第19题,It is time the government ____ the law into effect.
A、is putting
B、put
C、puts
D、will put
正确答案:


第20题,Yhudi Menuhin, who died in Berlin on March 12, 1999, at the age of 82, was a child prodigy who fulfilled his promise to become one of the world's foremost violinists before extending his range to teaching and conducting.
The gently spoken U.S.-born virtuoso became as renowned for his devotion to humane causes as for his mastery of the violin.
The spotlight has been on him since his debut at seven in 1924. By the time he was 13, he had performed in Paris, London and New York. In Berlin, his performance prompted physicist Albert Einstein to exclaim, "Now I know there is a God in Heaven."
Reportedly the world's highest paid musician in the 1930s, his striving for perfection made him a legend. Menuhin said the violin made its own demands, "Almost like a pagan goddess, exacting a certain tribute."
When he was 38, one New York newspaper wrote, "The freshness and unique purity of his playing is exhilarating. No other violinist has such speaking eloquence in the tone alone."
He gave up public violin performances in his 70s. His hearing was a little impaired by then and he had taken on many more interests. But his conducting was still full of energy and his travel schedule grueling.
"I feel that what I've learned in music I can apply to a wide repertoire, which is fun because I am exploring new terrain," he said in an interview at the time of his 80th birthday.
"But I feel no desire now to spend hours working away again at something which I myself in the past and other people can play far better than I can now. I don't see the point."
A British citizen since 1985 and a life peer since 1993—Baron Menuhin of Stoke d'Abernon in the County of Surrey—he had a school in England and an academy in Switzerland for young musicians, whom he often conducts.
He has also helped found various musical festivals, held the Nehru Peace Prize and was a goodwill ambassador for UNESCO.
While pursuing interests such as the environment, organic farming, alternative medicine, education and the plight of gypsies, he sticks to a long-standing healthy diet and yoga.
"I don't squander my energies. Keep myself in fairly good trim. I stand on my head every morning. Conducting is a wonderful exercise because it uses every faculty," he says.
Question:In his 70s, Menuhin ___________.
A、continued to give violin performances in public
B、was still busy travelling around
C、concentrated on conducting
D、had impaired his hearing
正确答案:


第21题,He let me use his computer and ____ return I treated him to dinner.
A、for
B、as
C、in
D、of
正确答案:


第22题,____ I want badly is a new sports car.
A、All that
B、All what
C、All which
D、The thing what
正确答案:


第23题,I'm very sorry ____ the whole morning. I forgot the appointment.
A、to keep you wait
B、to have kept you waiting
C、to keey you waiting
D、to keep you to wait
正确答案:


第24题,Now the committee ____ seven members.
A、consist of
B、is consisting of
C、is consisted of
D、consists of
正确答案:


第25题,Soon he got ____ his difficulties and succeeded.
A、across
B、away
C、over
D、through
正确答案:


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